Equipment Specs

Multi Terrain Loader

From RitchieWiki

Agricultural Equipment
Construction Equipment
Equipment Specifications - RitchieSpecs
Free specifications for all classes of equipment
Caterpillar 247B Multi Terrain Loader
A multi terrain loader, also known as a compact track loader, is similar to the skid steer loader except it moves along the ground with tracks instead of wheels. The tracks allow it to have less impact on softer terrain.

This machine is designed to dig and transport earth and other building materials. However, it can also be used for a variety of other tasks, including grading cement.


[edit] History

[edit] Early Beginnings

The multi terrain loader is a derivative of the skid steer loader. First developed in the 1950s, the first skid steer loader was a self-propelled, three-wheeled machine used for lifting materials. The first industry to reap the benefits of this machine was the agricultural industry, which began using skid steer loaders for the removal of manure from a turkey farm owned by Eddi Velo, a Minnesota farmer. Velo sought the help of a repair and fabrication company when he was constructing a two-story barn for his turkeys but found the tractor loaders were too large and heavy to clean the barn.

Keller Manufacturing took on this task and the owners, Louis and Cyril Keller, designed a machine with easy maneuverability. Their invention was so unique and efficient that Velo agreed to fund the production of the skid steer loader in exchange for free labor. [1]

The Keller brothers eventually produced more machines with the help of funding from Melroe Manufacturing Co., a company that was eventually awarded the manufacturing rights of the machine, granting the Keller brothers royalties and subsequent employment at Melroe.

ASV RC50 Multi Terrain Loader

[edit] Melroe and Bobcat Skid Steer Loaders

The Melroe loader, a nine horsepower machine similar to the Kellers' invention, appeared in 1959. It featured a Wisconsin engine with a steel frame. To follow was the first model produced for commercial use, the M60 self-propelled loader, featuring a cast rear frame and 12.9 horsepower. Other features included a two-cylinder ONAN engine and a grasshopper boom on the bucket. After several models to follow, the first skid steer loader with four-wheel drive was the M200 and the M60 models. These weren’t without their flaws, as the exposure to fertilizer corroded the drive system, sending the chains off the sprockets. The Kellers remedied this problem by installing a two-cylinder system into the raise of the machine’s arms.

The M440 Melroe Bobcat was the first machine to feature an enclosed drive shaft and double acting cylinders. Once the Bobcat models M444 and M600 were produced, many other manufacturers began to jump aboard with the manufacturing of the skid steer loader.

The skid steer loader successfully caught the attention of other manufacturers in construction and other industries. Its ability to complete tasks in record time and use of the tools and attachment on its front end made the skid steer loader beneficial to landscaping and construction project layouts. It was more useful than the front-end loader because its three-wheel configuration enabled it to turn with more ease and versatility.

[edit] A Multi Terrain Loader

The skid steer loader underwent many important changes in the coming decades. One of the most significant changes was in the cab protection for the operator. The first machines did not include this, leaving the operator vulnerable to hazards and risks. [2]

The skid steer loader evolved into the multi terrain loader when ASV, a manufacturer of construction equipment, began producing some of the first rubber-tracked undercarriages for Caterpillar’s multi terrain loaders in 2000.

Caterpillar’s compact multi terrain loader is one of the latest developments in the history of the multi terrain loader. The company introduced its B models in 2003. With the rubber track undercarriage, the multi terrain loaders were given better traction and stability. In addition, the machine was not weakened from the ground pressure as previous models were. [3]

[edit] Features

[edit] The Powertrain

The machine comprises a powertrain and utilizes hydraulic pumps and a diesel engine to produce the work required. This means that there is no mechanical transmission, a feature commonly found in other machinery and automobiles. This is crucial to the output of the machine because equipment such as a multi terrain loader may work for up to eight hours a day. The use of a diesel engine eases the use of fuel and adds to the efficiency of the machine.

On each side of the machine is a hydraulic motor connecting to a sprocket, which is in turn connected by chains on a wheel. The sprockets help send the power from the motor to the wheels while reducing the gears and increasing the torque in the tracks.

The engine of a Caterpillar multi terrain loader (and skid steer loaders, for that matter) can range from 49 horsepower capacity with a naturally aspirated diesel engine to a 74 horsepower, turbocharged diesel engine. [4]

[edit] Pumps

The engine produces power that is transmitted by hydraulic pumps—there are four in total. Two are variable displacement pumps that are categorized in a single unit and used for transmitting hydraulic power to the two motors; one is a fixed-displacement pump that provides power to the loader’s arms; and the other is a small fixed-displacement pump that circulates hydraulic fluid through the filters and pilot controls.[5] These pumps are exceptional in that they prevent the machine from stalling during use.

[edit] Arms

Takeuchi TL150 Multi Terrain Loader
One of the most unique and defining features of the multi terrain loader is its arms. Both compact and mobile, the arm is mounted on pivots positioned on the back of the machine. When the arms are lowered, it lies adjacent to the chassis, enabling compactness and easy maneuverability. The arms can be removed and replaced with longer arms when needed. [6]

The arms are capable of lifting a variety of materials of all sizes and weights with their radial lift design. The radial lift design allows the arms, which are connected by a pin at the side of the machine, to extend while pivoting the bucket downwards, a motion useful for scooping. When the bucket starts to rise, it moves away from the machine until it reaches a point higher than the mounting pin, at which point it moves closer to machine’s body. When the bucket is raised, it is moved further from the machine, a feature that elongates the stretch of the arm, making it useful in dumping loads into the middle of a truck or for placing materials into a deep shelf. Most Cat mulit-terrain loaders utilize this type of arm.

Caterpillar also has a machine with a vertical lift. the bucket begins close to the machine in its stationary, side-by-side position. As it is raised toward the operator’s eye, it moves away from the machine and can eventually reach a height of 128 inches (325 cm) if it keeps extending.

[edit] Tracks

The tracks give the machine a benefit not found in the skid steer loader. Along with better traction—which is important in conditions such as snow and mud—it also relays less pressure to the ground and reduces the impact that the machine has on soil compaction. This means there is less likely to be damage to the surface the machine is working on, which is crucial in landscaping, farming, and construction layouts. [7]

[edit] Anti-stall

Another feature to note, unique to Caterpillar multi terrain loaders, is the anti-stall device. This is a device comprising pumps that relay power to the wheels and tracks. The device is designed to sense the load the machine is carrying, at which point it locks the ability to exceed its optimum power capacity for the safety of the operator and the machine.

[edit] Attachments

The multi terrain loader can be fitted with many different types of attachments, some of which include:

This variety of attachments renders the multi terrain loader useful in forestry, agriculture, construction, landscaping, material handling, and trenching.

[edit] How it Works

The multi terrain loader is an easy machine to operate. With a foot throttle and a set of joysticks, the machine is propelled forward at the desired speed and direction. The machine is made up of a set of hydraulic valves that control the amount of fluid received by the hydraulic motor and the hydraulic cylinders, both of which control the movement of the tracks and the loader, respectively.

[edit] Common Manufacturers

[edit] Ritchie Bros. Marketplace

[edit] Additional Photos

See Multi Terrain Loader (Photo Gallery)

[edit] References

  1. Skid Steer Loaders. Directory M Articles. 2008-09-25.
  2. Skid Steer Loaders. Directory M Articles. 2008-09-25.
  3. Orleman, Eric. Caterpillar. Zenith Press: 2006, 139.
  4. Skid Steer Loaders. 2008-09-25.
  5. Skid Steer Loaders. 2008-09-25.
  6. Skid Steer Loaders. Directory M Articles. 2008-09-25.
  7. Skid Steer Loaders. 2008-09-25.